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History of Orenburg

Заплатин Вадим
Ученик 8 «А» класса

The city of Orenburg was founded three times between 1735 and 1743.
In 1731 Russian empress Anna Ioannovna permitted one of Tatar khans to accept Russian citizenship, and at the same time other influential people emphasized the necessity of building a fortress on the Ural River (previously Yaik River). That fortress should have become an important part of new trade ways to Middle Asia and East.
The project was approved by the Senate, in 1735 the founders begun the construction.
However, bad luck haunted them.
First, the builders chose the place, where the Or’ river entered the Ural river. That place was low and open to attacks of various robbers and nomads. In 1739 administration decided to move the city to a new place – Krasnaya Gora (Mt. Red), about 180 km away the old place, where now another city, Orsk, is located. New place turned out to be poor in materials and have unfavorable climate, and the city was founded for the third, and the last, time, 75 km away from the second site.
Orenburg was founded on April 19, 1743 on the high bank of the river Yaik and is still there.
Famous Alexander Suvorov gained here a priceless experience of subduing a large revolt in 1773. The city survived many stresses of various intensity. Over 3000 of Orenburg Cossacks participated in the Patriotic War of 1812.
Soviet regime changed status of the city several times. Between 1920 and 1925 Orenburg was the capital of one of the Soviet autonomous republics, and in 1934 it became the regional centre.


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