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Russia, Moscow, Arbat!

Петроченкова Анастасия Сергеевна.
ГОУ СОШ № 1400, 8 «Б»
Учитель: Сульженко Наталья Алексеевна.

Ах, Арбат, мой Арбат, ты - моё призвание,
Ты - и радость моя, и моя беда.
(Б. Окуджава)

Arbat is an approximately one-kilometer long pedestrian street in the centre of Moscow. Arbat has existed at least since the 15th century. It forms the heart of the Arbat District of Moscow. Originally the street was a part of an important trade route and was home to a large number of craftsmen. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it became known as a place where petty nobility and artists lived.
Today the street and its surroundings are undergoing gentrification. Arbat is an important tourist attraction, thanks to many historic buildings.
Arbat is one of the oldest surviving streets in Moscow. The original meaning of the name Arbat is unknown. There are several hypotheses:
• One of them the Arabic “arbād“ word meaning 'suburb' or 'outskirts'
• Another from the Tatar word arba, i.e. "cart". This is explained by the possible existence of a workshop in the area which produced carts.
In the first two decades of the 20th century new buildings were built on Arbat, which still contribute to the overall appearance of the street. In 1904 electric trams were introduced, which were replaced 30 years later by trolleybuses. In 1935 Moscow's first Metro station was opened on Arbatskaya Square. After the October revolution, the Bolsheviks confiscated private property and made the buildings property of the state. The previous apartment buildings were made into kommunalkas, the area served more to accommodate the high-ranking functionaries of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, most of Arbat's churches were demolished.
In the early 1980s Arbat, which had been a busy street for traffic, was closed off and made into the first pedestrian zone of the Soviet Union. The renovation of the street and many of its historical buildings was completed in 1986.The overall appearance of Arbat is dominated by street artists, souvenir stalls and shops, restaurants, cafés and bars.


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