«Katherine’s water supply system»
Пушкарев Василий Владимирович, ученик 9 класса
The environs of Mytishchi have been famous for its delicious water from the springs in the source of the Yauza for a long time. In the 1800s the plumbing from Mytishchi to Moscow was built by Katherine II’s decree. It became the first centralized water supply system in Russia. The building came to life under the guidance of an engineer Baur.
Water came by gravity. The water-pipe gallery 23.8 km long was built of bricks. The gallery passed from 42 drill holes to take-off fountains through some large Moscow squares. 5 aqueducts were made across several rivers.
The main spring was the Gromovoy which appeared according to the legend by the blow of lightning. In the 1810s the main volume of water began percolating through the cracks. The plumbing was reconstructed by the project of N.I. Yanish. As a result, cast-iron pipes were installed, steam machines were mounted, Alekseevskaya water-raising station, from which water flowed to Sukhareva tower, was built. Later during the second reconstruction under the guidance of Delvig the Mytishchi pump station (architect Geppener) was built. In 1887-1892 the third route of plumbing was built by Zimin. Shuhov and Zhukovsky made their contribution to working out of the project. Krestovskiye water-pressure towers were raised by architect Geppener. In 1905 the plumbing attained maximum capacity.
Since the beginning of the XX century the quality of water had become worse, the attempts to stop the process failed. In the 1920s-30s the role of this plumbing in Moscow decreased. In 1962 supplying Moscow with water stopped. Today the majority of springs has been dried, but some of them are used for needs of Mytishchi only. Parts of galleries such as Rostokinskiy aqueduct, Mytishchi and Alekseevskaya pump stations, some take-off fountains still remain.
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