Orenburg, the history
Выполнил работу: Никулин Никита
It is believed that it was the insistent petitions of the nomadic Kirghis-Kaisak tribes who inhabited this locality wishing to become subjects of the Russian crown, which triggered development in the Orenburg region. On 19th February, 1731, Empress Anna Ioanovna forwarded Russian envoys to the Khan of the Junior Juz (The Lesser Horde) thereby starting voluntary incorporation of Kazakhstan into Russia and realizing Peter the Great’s dream of establishing ‘direct relations with Asian countries and lands’.
In 1734 the Senate Ober-Secretary, Ivan Kirilovich Kirilov devised a project to ‘develop a Russian town at the south-east frontier of the Russian Empire’. In turn Khan Abul-Khair of the Junior Juz was inspired to bring Kirilov’s proposal to the attention of the Empress. On 1st May, 1734 the project received a ‘most gracious approbation’ and on 7th June Anna Ioanovna signed ‘The Privilege’ – ‘The new town, with God’s grace, determined to be erected, should bear the name Orenburg’. The author of the initiative, Kirilov, was appointed commander of the expedition which established a fortress on the left bank of the Yaik River on 15th August, 1735. And just at the mouth of the Or, on 31st August, it was reported that ‘the town of Orenburg itself with 9 bastions’ was founded, however, not to be ever built. Two years later, after Kirilov’s death, Vassily Nikitich Tatishchev was appointed commander of the Orenburg Expedition. The vigorous activities of Vassily Tatishchev as a scientist and statesman were abruptly interrupted as a result of ‘reports’ accusing him of abuse of power, and he was discharged of his duties.
On 27th November, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna ascended the Russian throne. She appoinred Ivan Ivanivich Nepliuyev as commanding officer of the Orenburg Commission.
In 1743 Ivan Nepliuyev visited the town and unhappy with the site, offered another some 70 versts westwards beside the Berdy Fortress. On 19th April (30th new style) 1743 the town ‘with proper prayers and cannon fire’ was finally established on the higher bank of the Yaik beside the Sakmara River estuary.
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