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THE KAZAN KREMLIN

Никифорова Светлана Владимировна
МОУ «СОШ № 47 г. Казань»
Учитель английского языка

The Kazan Kremlin is a unique historial and cultural monument. Architect: Postnik Yakovlev, Ivan Shiryay Architectural traditions of Bulgar, Golden Horde, Medieval Kazan-Tatar, Italian and Russian culture are interlaced here. The territory of Kremlin was extended for 120 meters, but the lay-out was not changed. Building material – white limestone - was brought from another bank of the Volga river. Southern and northern walls with Spasskaya tower and Taynitskie gates were constructed first. The rest of the walls were kept wooden oaken for a long time and only in XVII century were substituted by brick ones. The towers played the great role in defence of the Kremlin. There are only 2 tower gates functioning for today – Spasskaya and Tainitskaya towers. Brick walls of the Kazan Kremlin considered to be one of the most unassailable in Russia. As the borders of Russia moved to the south and east the Kazan Kremlin gradually lost its military function and strengthened its administrative function. And this fact found the reflection in the Kremlin’s architectural image. This image lost Tatar traits, acquiring Russian and Western European traits.
Since 1992 the Kazan Kremlin is being formed as the representative center of the Republic of Tatarstan. “Kazan Kremlin” state historical architectural museum reserve, created in 1994, started systematic scientific study of the complex of the Kazan Kremlin. The Kazan Kremlin is the object of historical and cultural heritage of federal level and one of the most important objects of cultural heritage of the Republic of Tatarstan.
In 1998 historical architectural complex was included in the preliminary UNESCO World Heritage list and in November 2000 it was added to the list of the World Cultural Heritage.

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